Most undergraduates applying for federal student aid must provide their parents' financial information. There are a few exceptions.*
The government, in all its wisdom, assumes that your parents or legal guardians will contribute toward your college education and therefore, requires that they disclose their income and assets on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). However, and here's the rub, your parents or legal guardians have no obligation to pay your tuition.
If your parents or guardians, wealthy or poor, do not contribute toward your college education, you nonetheless need their information to complete the FAFSA.
*There are exceptions to this rule. You qualify as an independent student if you meet any of the following criteria (which you can find in Section 2 of the FAFSA):
If you do not meet any of these criteria, you are a dependent student; your parents' financial information is necessary to complete the form and be considered for aid.
If you are a dependent student yet have no contact with your parents, or if you have another unusual circumstance that is not reflected in your FAFSA application, you should contact your school's financial aid office.
FAOs are seasoned professionals, but they're also regular people like you and they want to help. Because FAOs distribute federal funds to students from a pool of money, they have a degree of latitude and discretion. You may be asked to provide evidence of your situation, so be prepared with the relevant documents.